Honest, Babette - née Schulherr, 09.04.1867 Dormitz/Bavaria, 05.05.1944 KZ Theresienstadt
Honest, Carry - Emigration to the USA
Honest, Emil - 27.07.1861 Römhild, 08.01.1933 Römhild
Honestly, Hermann - 1882 Römhild, 1939 Emigration to the USA
Honestly, Max - 08.01.1888 Römhild, d. d. Internment camp Gurs/France
Honestly, Sally - 17.02.1878 Römhild, deportation target April 25, 1942 Krasnystaw/District Lublin
Elkan, Jenny - née Heß, 05.02.1874 Römhild, suicide 20.05.1942 Eisenach
Elkan, Richard - 25.05.1862, 08.01.1920
Friedmann, Anna - née Kahn, 10.02.1892 Römhild, 1942 Ghetto Belzyce/District Lublin
Friedmann, Heinz (Meir) - 27.02.1919, Emigration to Palestine
Friedmann, Gerd - 1924, emigration to Palestine
Friedmann, Max - 09.05.1887 Berkach, 1942 Ghetto Belzyce/District Lublin
Friedmann, Solomon - 17.06.1870, emigration to the USA
Friedmann, Ida - née Kahn, 14.06.1872, emigration to the USA
Friedmann, Hilde - 29.08.1901, emigration to the USA
Friedmann, Frieda - née Rosenbaum, 21.06.1855 Römhild, 12.11.1942 KZ Theresienstadt
Hammerstein, Klara - née Heß, 08.04.1877 Römhild, 16.05.1944 Extermination camp Auschwitz
Kahn, Adolf - 25.09.1889 Römhild, target for deportation 19.03.1943 extermination camp Auschwitz
Kahn, Frieda - née Linke, 18.05.1895 Schottwitz/Landkreis Breslau, 05.03.1946 Römhild
Kahn, Nanny - née Seligmann, 11.08.1867 Gleicherwiesen, 12.07.1943 KZ Theresienstadt
Katz, Jenny - née Ehrlich, 17.08.1874 Römhild, October 1942 extermination camp Auschwitz
Lefor, Isidor - 11.09.1881 Barchfeld, deportation target 12.08.1942 Extermination camp Auschwitz
Lefor, Margarete - née Kahn, 17.08.1893 Römhild, 08.02.1942 Internment camp Pau/France
Löwenstein, Käthe - born 27.02.1917, emigration to USA
Naumann, Hanna - 15.08.1937 Römhild, deportation target 10.05.1942 Ghetto Belzyce/District Lublin
Naumann, Hugo - 26.10.1898 Gailingen/Baden, deportation target 10.05.1942 Ghetto Belzyce/District Lublin
Naumann, Margot - 01.04.1933, 30.06.1933
Naumann, Martha - née Ehrlich, 14.10.1898 in Römhild, deportation target 10.05.1942 Ghetto Belzyce/District Lublin
Naumann, Mathel - 03.10.1938 Römhild, deportation target 10.05.1942 Ghetto Belzyce/District Lublin
Naumann, Ruth - 12.05.1935 Römhild, deportation target 10.05.1942 Ghetto Belzyce/District Lublin
This evening marks the 77th anniversary of the Reichspogromnacht, the night on which the Jews were officially declared "bird liberations" by the German state.
In this pogrom - a Russian term meaning devastation and destruction - about 400 people were murdered or driven to suicide. More than 1,400 synagogues, prayer rooms and other Jewish meeting rooms as well as thousands of shops, apartments and Jewish cemeteries were destroyed by willing Nazis.
From 10 November, approximately 30,000 Jews - men between the ages of 18 and 60 - were imprisoned in concentration camps, hundreds of whom were murdered or died of the consequences of their imprisonment. During the days around 9 November 9845 Jews arrived at the Buchenwald concentration camp, including Max Friedmann from Römhild.
Today, on 9 November 2015, 77 years later, we remember the fates of the Roman Jews with this stele.
There are 29 names on it.
The impetus for this public memory was given by the 90 year old Gert (Gad) Friedmann, the last living family member of the Friedmanns, who himself still lived in Römhild, in today's Heurichstraße.
All his life after his escape from Germany he spent commemorating his parents, grandparents and passing on the knowledge of the Roman past to his children and grandchildren.
His already deceased brother Heinz (Meir) Friedmann and he visited Römhild several times after the political change in 1989. In 1990 Gert wrote after his first visit: "If I can't visit my parents' grave, at least I would like to visit the places where they lived."
A short insight into the family history:
After the parents Max and Anna Friedmann succeeded in sending their three children Heinz, Gert and Käthe abroad, their aim - like that of the other Jews of Römhild - was to find a safe country for their own departure. At the latest after the enactment of the Nuremberg Race Laws in 1935, they saw no future in Germany. The problem, however, was that many countries in the world did not accept older, destitute refugees or refused entry shortly before the arrival of the ships, or left the refugees to the Nazis or demanded guarantees, etc. The problem was that the refugees were not allowed to enter the country, and that they were not allowed to do so.
There were enough reasons not to help. In addition, there was the outbreak of the war in 1939. In early May 1942, all remaining Römhild Jews received the news that they were to be "resettled" and would have to arrive in Erfurt on the ninth of the month. Two days before their deportation, Max and Anna Friedmann wrote a farewell letter to their children and deposited it with acquaintances in Meiningen. On Max Friedmann's 55th birthday, his parents were taken to Weimar and from there deported with hundreds of Thuringian Jews to Belzyce in the east, where they were certain to die. The Friedmanns' grandmother, Nanny Kahn, died on 12 July 1943 in the Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Only five years later, when all family members of the Friedmann family had been wiped out, did the children receive this farewell letter from their parents. Today we comply with the wish of Gert Friedmann and he knows it - unfortunately he cannot be there because of his age. But photos of this event and of the stele will tell him about it.
A brief insight into the history of the Jewish community for you:
In Römhild Jews are already documented in the Middle Ages. The first record dates back to 1298, when they were persecuted by the butcher's gangs called Rintfleisch. They went murdering through Franconia and Thuringia and killed about 5000 Jews.
Decades later there was a resettlement of Jews in Römhild and after the transfer of the town to the Wettin Margraves in 1555 all Jews are said to have been expelled.
In 1750 a census showed that 18 Jewish families lived in Römhild.
In the second half of the 19th century some families from neighbouring communities moved to Römhild. However, the number of Jewish inhabitants remained small - 20 to 30 people in four to five families. In particular, the Ehrlich families were the first of the Jewish families to move to Römhild.
Jewish families opened several shops. Around 1920, Meier Friedmann owned a hardware and household goods shop (which was later taken over by his son Max Friedmann), Adolf Kahn owned a manufactory shop, and Salomon Friedmann had a cattle shop. They were all integrated into the city: for example, Max Friedmann was active as a member of the voluntary fire brigade until 1933.
In 1933 33 people of Jewish faith lived in Römhild.
In the following years some of them moved away or emigrated due to the consequences of the economic boycott, the increasing deprivation of rights and the reprisals: